A Systematic Review of the Availability and Efficacy of Countermeasures to Internal Threats in Healthcare Critical Infrastructure


Insider attacks are becoming increasingly detrimental and frequent, affecting critical infrastructure at a massive scale. Recent attacks such as the U.K. National Health Service WannaCry ransomware attack which partly depends on internal users for initial infection highlight the increasing role of the malicious insiders in cyber-attack campaigns. The objective of this research is to ascertain the existing technological capability to mitigate insider threats within computer security systems by way of a mixed-method systematic review. Evidence was acquired from major sources of mainstream and grey literature by analyzing about 300 000 papers. Crude aggregated results were analyzed across the literature, and the results were TPR 0.75, FPR 0.32, σ 0.24 and 0.36, respectively, and σ2 0.06 and 0.13, respectively. In totality, the literature evidence suggests that there is high heterogeneity across crude data indicating that the effectiveness of security measures varies significantly. No solution is able to totally mitigate an insider threat. Themes when against that data suggest that most, if not all, security measures require breaches to occur before an analysis of malicious activity can prevent it in future through recall. Such a reactive approach is not effective protect our critical infrastructure including our healthcare systems. Consequently, there is a major theoretical shortfall in current cyber defence architecture.